Geographic Information System (GIS)
The newly formed State of Chhattisgarh is endowed with natural resources like forest, mineral resources, flora and fauna, wide range of crops and cropping patterns, and rich cultural diversity. The population of Chhattisgarh is divided in 27 districts with 149 tehsils and 20379 revenue villages. The multiplicity of natural resources, their uses has competing and conflicts interests that may arise between the various stakeholders makes compulsory to enable planning at multiple levels. Government of Chhattisgarh through its nodal agency, Chhattisgarh InfoTech & biotech Promotion Society (Chips), an autonomous organization under the
Department of Information Technology, in consultation with Department of Panchyat and Rural Development (P&RD), and Department of Land Revenue (LRD), has generated Natural Resources Database (NRD), Infrastructure Resource Database and Cadastral Database for the State of Chhattisgarh on various scale from 1:50000 scale for natural resource, 1:4000 for rural cadastral maps to 1:1000 for urban amenities using IRS LISS-III/IV and CARTOSET data made available by NRSA(ISRO). These databases of Natural Resources (NRD), Socio-economics, Infrastructure and other collateral information has helped in project planning, implementation and impact assessment. The land parcel layer in this vector data base has been integrated with the tenancy records of B-1 and Khasra. The delivery of these maps and land records has been made possible in the state for the first time. The secured printing of maps and handling of vector required for capturing mutation data has been done for the first time in the country.
Approach in Chhattisgarh
Chips used scanner for vectorisation of available Survey of India, topo-sheets which have good accuracy and it was then attached with raster and other attribute data. Chips also approached NRSA and other ISRO agencies for digital GIS dataset. For better accuracy and geo-referenced data (data with latitude longitude information) state took help from RRSSC (Regional Remote Sensing Services Centres) of ISRO (Department of Space) GOI Nagpur Centre. However this involved a major cost component of space imageries of different resolution. Multiple technological options (mentioned in table below) were evaluated and after careful analysis and comparison with foreign satellite imageries and Indian satellite such as IRS outputs available were selected.
The panchromatic and LIS-III / LIS-IV or other recent images fused together gave resolution of less than 2 to 5 mtr, and sub 1 mtr at a later stage.
Basic datasets for the first time in the country to this magnitude created under this project includes-
Natural Resources Database for the state of Chhattisgarh
Generation of thematic layers on 1:50,000 scale as per NRIS standards for the entire state viz. Drainage and Watershed, Surface Water body, Slope and Aspect, Soils, Mineral Resources, Land use/Land cover, Wasteland map, Transport Network, Settlement Location and Village Boundary, Rainfall and Climate (Data from IMD), Socio Economic Data Base as per NRIS, Census data and other socio economic data. The digital database generated was as per the standards confirming NRIS codification and also confirming to standard GIS format. The layers of lithology, structure, geomorphology and groundwater potential were also integrated with the database and made available to Drinking Water Mission.
Development of Spatial Database for Road and railway Network of Chhattisgarh State
Digitization of road map provided by PWD/RES, Updation of road network from high resolution IRS satellite data on 1:50,000 scale and feature extraction from satellite image for new roads, on 1:50,000 scale. Validation of database in association with PWD/RES and the digital database generated in standard GIS format
Geo-referencing of Village maps
Input maps were taken from land record department, and scanning, digitization and registration of cadastral maps, submission of check plots for quality check to LRD, geo-referencing of cadastral maps, submission of sheet-wise plots on 1:4000 scale, generation of tehsil-wise/revenue circle-wise mosaic of cadastral maps. This was subsequently overlaid on Satellite data indented covering the entire study area from National Data Centre, NRSA, Hyderabad. Geo-referencing of satellite data, Generation of enhanced color composites using IRS PAN & LISS-III data was done to identify geographic details up to parcel level.